The properties of Synephrine in supplements
|TBS Ingredient ID (TBSI ID):||IS37FFF0|
|Oxedrine, P-Synephrine, Parasympatol|
| PubChem CID: |
U.S. National Library of Medicine (PubChem)
| InChI Key: |
International Chemical Identifier hash (InChIKey) computed from chemical structure using the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) standard
| CAS: |
A proprietary registry number assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) division of the American Chemical Society (ACS)
| EC Number: |
A seven-digit regulatory identifier currently assigned by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) known as a European Community (EC) number
| ATC code: |
WHO ATC Classification System. The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. This pharmaceutical coding system divides drugs into different groups according to the organ or system on which they act and/or their therapeutic and chemical characteristics
Synephrine, or, more specifically, p-synephrine, is an alkaloid, occurring naturally in some plants and animals, and also in approved drugs products as its m-substituted analog known as neo-synephrine. p-Synephrine (or formerly Sympatol and oxedrine [BAN]) and m-synephrine are known for their longer acting adrenergic effects compared to norepinephrine. This substance is present at very low concentrations in common foodstuffs such as orange juice and other orange (Citrus species) products, both of the “sweet” and “bitter” variety. The preparations used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), also known as Zhi Shi, are the immature and dried whole oranges from Citrus aurantium (Fructus Aurantii Immaturus). Extracts of the same material or purified synephrine are also marketed in the US, sometimes in combination with caffeine, as a weight-loss-promoting dietary supplement for oral consumption. While the traditional preparations have been in use for millennia as a component of TCM-formulas, synephrine itself is not an approved OTC drug. As a pharmaceutical, m-synephrine (phenylephrine) is still used as a sympathomimetic (i.e. for its hypertensive and vasoconstrictor properties), mostly by injection for the treatment of emergencies such as shock, and rarely orally for the treatment of bronchial problems associated with asthma and hay-fever.
Extracts of unripe fruit from Asian cultivars of Citrus aurantium (commonly known as “bitter” orange), collected in China, were reported to contain synephrine levels of about 0.1–0.3%, or ~1–3 mg/g.
Some dietary supplements, sold for the purposes of promoting weight-loss or providing energy, contain synephrine as one of several constituents.